By Dr. Elias Akleh
Ninety nine years ago, on November 2nd 1917, a letter came to be known as “Balfour Declaration” was sent from the British Foreign Secretary; Arthur James Balfour, to the most senior Zionist Jew in Britain; Walter Rothschild, pledging assistance to the Zionist cause of establishing a Jewish national home (a state) in Palestine disregarding the rights and the aspirations of the indigenous Christian and Muslim Palestinian inhabitants. Balfour expressed his disregard and disdain of the rights of Palestinians when he later wrote:
“In Palestine we do not propose even to go through the form of consulting the wishes of the present inhabitants of the country. The four powers are committed to Zionism, and Zionism, be it right or wrong, good or bad, is rooted in age-long tradition, in present needs, in future hopes of far profounder import than the desires and prejudices of the 700,000 Arabs, who now occupy the land”
Balfour’s letter became the major root cause of continuous wars and devastations that affected, and still affecting, many world countries especially the Middle Eastern region. These wars had led to the total destruction of many cities, many were razed to the ground, to the murder of millions of people, to the expulsion and ethnic cleansing of many other millions making them refugees roaming on their face seeking safe shelter, and to outrageous expenses on militarization.
During WWI Britain suffered a lot of losses and was threatened to lose the war in Europe. Zionist leaders bargained with Britain to get influential American Zionist organizations to convince the American president to enter the war on the British side if Britain promised to support the establishment of a Jewish national home (a state) in Palestine at the end of the war. Thus Balfour Declaration was issued to the British Zionist leader, Walter Rothschild.
William D. Rubinstein; a professor of Modern History at the University of Aberystwyth in UK and a fellow of the Royal Historical Society exposed the fact that the Balfour Declaration, although initially written by Balfour, had gone through many edited versions with the final approved version written by a “secret Jew” called Leopard Amery, who was an ardent Zionist.
American President; Woodrow Wilson, was pressured by politically and financially influential American Zionists to enter WWI in 1917 breaking his presidential campaign promise not to enter the war. At least 270,000 American soldiers, killed and injured, were just a partial price US had paid to support the Zionists at the time.
While many are brainwashed with the Balfour Declaration due to the wide spread Zionist control over the media outlets, very few are aware of Hussein-McMahon Correspondence of 1915-1916. Hussein ibn Ali ibn Hashem was the Sharif (ruler, king) of Mecca, looked up to by Arab population as their leader for independence from the Ottoman Empire that ruled then the whole Middle East. Sir Henry McMahon represented Britain as the British High Commissioner in Egypt.
When the Ottoman Empire entered WWI on the German side the Allies; Russia, France and Britain, were threatened to lose the war. Being aware of the aspirations of the Arabs for independence and freedom from the 400 years long Ottoman brutal rule, Sir Henry McMahon rushed to Sharif Hussein ibn Ali for help. Through correspondence both entered into a political agreement/contract by which Hussein would lead a military revolt against the Ottoman Empire in return Britain would acknowledge an Arab state under Hussein’s rule extending from Great Syria in the North all the way down south to Yemen on the shores of the Indian Ocean. Unlike Balfour Declaration that was a mere letter from a British official to a British citizen, both aliens to Palestine and had never been in the country, Hussein-McMahon Correspondence of 1915-1916 was an official political agreement between the representative of two countries that had precedence over the 1917 Balfour Declaration.
Initially, Britain lived up to its agreement with Hussein, and through their liaison Thomas Edward Lawrence (known as Lawrence of Arabia), supplied Hussein with the weapons he needed to launch the Arab Revolt liberating the whole Arab Middle East from the Ottoman rule. Yet, Britain, as treacherous as it had always been, betrayed Hussein by entering into a secret agreement with France; Sykes-Picot Agreement of 1916, in which the two parties had agreed to divide the Arab World between them. Balfour Declaration of 1917 was another British treacherous deal.
Bargaining with the British, Hussein accepted Balfour Declaration to provide “poor persecuted” European Jews refuge in Palestine on the assumption they would become Arab citizens and not to establish a separate Jewish state contrary to British intentions. To get rid of Hussein; then an obstacle to the Zionist project, the British supported and armed the Sa’udi family to fight Hussein, who was eventually exiled to Cypress until 1930, then moved to Transjordan to live with his son Abdullah. Hussein died in 1931.
Hussein had three sons. The oldest, Ali, ruled Mecca until he was defeated by the Sa’udis in 1925. The second, Faisal, who led most of the Arab Revolt, became King of Great Syria until France enforced its mandate in Syria and kicked him out in 1920. In 1921 Britain installed Faisal as King of Iraq due to his moderate policies. Although he accepted Balfour Declaration on the assumption that Jews become Arab citizens he, like his father, opposed the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine. Faisal died at the age of 48 while under general medical checkup in Bern, Switzerland. It was claimed that he had a heart attack although many believed that he was poisoned.
The third son, Abdullah, king of Trans-Jordan at the time, learned the hard lesson from the fates of his father and brothers. He cooperated with the British. He accepted Balfour Declaration, supported the 1937 Peel Commission proposing Palestine division, and finally was the only Arab leader, who accepted and supported 1947 UN partition plan of Palestine to establish a Jewish state. Abdullah had secret meetings with Israelis, particularly with Golda Meier; once an Israeli Prime Minister, who used to disguise herself in Arabic women clothing to visit Abdullah in Jericho and in Amman. During his visit to Jerusalem in July 20th, 1951 to pray in Al-Aqsa Mosque and then to meet with Israeli representatives; Reuven Shiloah and Moshe Sasson, Abdullah was assassinated by Palestinians opposing his political stance.
In the 1919 Paris Peace Conference (Versailles Peace Conference) the Zionist organization pushed its proposal for a Jewish state in Palestine, parts of Jordan, parts of Syria and parts of Lebanon, requesting Britain to implement Balfour Declaration during its mandate in the area. British Mandate opened widely the doors of immigration to Palestine for the Jews. Thousands of Jews, some voluntarily others coerced, were shipped to Palestine under the supervision and expense of the Zionist organization.
This went relatively unnoticed until the Palestinians discovered that arms shipments were accompanied with these Jewish immigrants, who started occupying hill tops establishing hostile kibbutz, forming terrorist gangs, and started attacking Palestinian targets. They complained to British officials, who did not do anything about it. Palestinians then led a three years revolt from 1936 to 1939. Eventually Britain issued the White Paper clarifying its political position concerning Palestine. The Paper rejected the idea of partitioning Palestine, and imposed a limit to the number of Jewish immigrants. It stated:
“Balfour Declaration does not contemplate that Palestine as a whole should be converted into Jewish National Home, but that such a Home should be founded in Palestine … Further, it is contemplated that the status of all citizens of Palestine in the eyes of the law shall be Palestinian”
After this clarification Zionist Jewish terrorist groups such as Irgun and Lehi (Stern Gang) added British targets to their terrorist attack list in addition to attacking Palestinian villages massacring their whole inhabitants. One of their well-known terrorist attacks was the bombing of King David Hotel in Jerusalem on July 22nd 1946. The hotel was the central office for the British Mandate authorities.
When the British Mandate expired in 1948, Britain handed the Palestinian crisis to the newly formed United Nations General Assembly. Zionist organizations pushed for the implementation of Balfour Declaration to establish a Jewish state in Palestine. The UN formed a Special Committee on Palestine (UNSCOP) to investigate and report on the Palestinian crisis. The members of this Special Committee were all westerners without any Palestinian or Arab representatives. Pressured by Zionists the Committee spent some of their time visiting European Jewish communities and organizations. The Committee, then, recommended that Palestine be partitioned into separate Jewish and Arab states. It also recommended that such plan should be implemented by force against the will of the Palestinians, who were the majority in Palestine in violation of the Security Council Charter.
The UN, then, adopted and proposed the partition plan; a two-state solution. Under this partition plan the Zionist Jews received 55% of the country including the most fertile land although they accounted for only one third of the population and owned only 6% of the land (Walid Khalidi, Revisiting the UNGA Partition Resolution, Journal Of Palestine Studies, 1997, p. 11).
Although Palestinians had no representatives in the UN, and most of the other Arab states were still under colonialism, many UN delegates strongly criticized and opposed the plan. Twice the vote on the UN partition plan did not reach the required two thirds majority although a good deal of arm-twisting was applied on the smaller countries.
To guarantee a majority on the third vote Zionist organizations resorted to the American administration to exercise economic and political pressure on other countries to change their vote for the plan (Alfred M. Lilienthal; What Price Israel?, p. 47). President Truman’s two top advisors; Bernard Baruch and David Niles, both Zionist Jews, were instrumental in this endeavor. Baruch threatened France and the Scandinavian Countries to withdraw desperately needed post-WWII American financial/economic aid if they don’t change their vote for the plan. France, originally, abstained from voting and supported alternative solutions including a single state with sufficient guarantees for minorities.
Niles manipulated the rubber magnate Harvey Firestone to exercise economic pressure on Liberia to change its vote. Latin American delegates were advised that the Pan-American Highway Construction Project would be more likely to happen if they voted for the partition. Costa Rica’s President; Jose Figueres, was given a blank check book. Haiti and Philippines delegates changed their position 180 degrees and voted for the plan after Haiti was promised economic aid, while the Philippine was threatened by American Supreme Court Justice; Felix Frankfurter and President Truman’s advisor Clark Clifford to drop Philippines seven bills pending in Congress (Alison Weir, Against Our Better Judgment, p. 55).
Although Sir Muhammad Zafrullah Khan; Pakistan’s Minister of Foreign Affairs in 1947 and the representative of the Arab World in the recently established UN, exposed in his speech at the UN that many countries were under American Zionist pressure to vote for the Partition Plan to create Israel, the Plan in the form of UN Resolution 181had passed.
It is important, here, to explain that Resolution 181was a General Assembly resolution, and, unlike Security Council resolutions, was not binding on member states. Although the Resolution requested that the Security Council take the necessary measures to implement the plan, the Security Council did not. Thus the Resolution was only a mere recommendation.
It is also important to explain that the General Assembly did not have any authority to partition Palestine. The UN had no sovereignty over the Palestinians, and had no right to deprive them of their right for independence.
In the eyes of the international law, Resolution 181 is totally illegal, a flagrant violation of human rights, and could be construed as a crime against the Palestinian people. The Resolution had violated Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations that had previously recognized the independence of the Palestinian people. It had also violated the Charter of the UN and the principle of self-determination of the Palestinians. A third violation was against the basic democratic principles when the Resolution disregarded the will of the majority of the Palestinian inhabitants at the time, who strongly opposed the partition plan (Jeremy Hammond, The Myth of the U.N. Creation of Israel).
The UN Security Council had also failed to perform its stated objective of maintaining international peace and failed the Palestinians when it did not protect them from Zionist colonialism. Such failure had allowed the waging of many wars that are threatening international peace until today.
Despite of all these illegalities, Zionists Jewish organizations, who had amassed British and American weaponry and formed an army, declared their illegal state of Israel and launched their military conquest according to Plan Dalet razing to the ground 418 Palestinian villages (two thirds of the villages of Palestine), perpetrating many massacres against unarmed villagers, ethnically cleansed and expelled at least 750,000 Palestinians, and militarily occupied 78% of Palestine by the end of 1948.
The first phase of the Zionist Great Israel Project had been accomplished in 1948 by declaring the state of Israel. Israel launched the second phase in 1967 attacking and occupying the rest of Palestine; the West Bank and Gaza Strip, the Syrian Golan Heights, and the Southern parts of Lebanon. Palestinians though, learned their lesson this time, stood their ground resisting the Israeli occupation.
Israel waged more brutal wars in Jordan, Egypt and Lebanon. Every time the American administration came to the rescue militarily, financially and politically vetoing all UN resolutions condemning Israeli terror. Although the PLO was neutralized through Oslo Accords, and later on the Palestinian Authority in the West Bank under president Mahmoud Abbas became an Israeli proxy security agent suppressing any type of Palestinian resistance, many Palestinian resistance groups especially in the Gaza Strip, some are supported by Lebanese Hezbollah, continued fighting. West Bank Palestinians continued their resistance through Intifadas and weekly demonstrations.
Exhausted, tired, and socially ill and their new generations looking for peaceful and stable future either dodging the mandatory military draft and/or immigrating back to their parent’s original country in Europe and America, Zionist leaders needed to resort to more drastic measures to continue their colonial project.
Understanding the importance of the American political, financial, and military support to their colonial dream; Greater Israel in the Middle East, Zionists intensified their infiltration of successive American administrations to control their foreign as well as domestic policies. They created the Federal Reserve to control the Dollar, and established and strengthened their American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC). Through the Zionist false flag attacks against the USA such as September 11 attacks, Zionists got American military involved to their necks into Israel’s wars in the Middle East. American military got involved first in Lebanon, 1983, then recently in Iraq, Libya, Syria and Yemen. American administrations have been siphoning American tax money into Israel; cutting budgets of American educational systems to provide free education to Israeli students, raising the cost of American health insurance to provide complete health coverage to every Israeli citizen, neglecting homeless American veterans to subsidize Israeli illegal colonies (settlements), providing Israel with free military technologies and weaponry, and gifting the illegal terrorist state with unconditioned $3.8 billion. One needs only to listen to the speeches of presidential candidates to recognize this Zionist/Israeli control.